University of New Mexico, Advisory Board Member
Dr. Alverson is Professor Emeritus and Regents Professor at the University of New Mexico where he is the Medical Director of the Center for Telehealth involved in the planning, implementation, research and evaluation of Telemedicine systems for New Mexico, as well as nationally and internationally. [expander_maker id=”3″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”] He is also the CMIO at LCF Research, managing the state-wide health information exchange (HIE) assisting in their efforts to address the development and meaningful use of health information technologies, adoption of electronic health records, and integration with telemedicine. He is a Past President of the American Telemedicine Association and has also been involved in collaborative international programs to advance Telehealth and e-Health globally.[/expander_maker]
Tony M. Astorga
CPA., Advisory Board Member
Mr. Astorga retired in 2011 from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Arizona where he served as the Senior Vice President & Chief Financial Officer since 1988 and as the Chief Business Development Officer since 2010. He also held the position as President of Blue Cross Blue Shield of Mexico from 1994-1999.[expander_maker id=”4″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
Mr. Astorga received a B.S. Degree in accounting with high honors from Arizona State University and has attended executive education programs at Fuqua School of Business – Duke University, Kellogg Graduate School of Management – Northwestern University, and Graduate Center for Health Professions University of California San Francisco.
He is currently a member of the board of directors for the Arizona Community Foundation, Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, ASU Foundation, Catholic Charities, CSA General Insurance Agency, Financial Executives International, Phoenix Art Museum, and US Bank Arizona. In addition, he currently serves as chairman of the Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Foundation and has previously served in community leadership roles as co-chair of the Governors Citizens Finance Review Commission, Maricopa Community Colleges ACE Campaign Cabinet, and Governors Film and Television Commission.
He has been an active member of the community where he has previously served as a member of the Board of Directors of the Arizona Academy, Arizona-Mexico Commission, Arizona Coliseum and Exposition Center, Arizona Society of Certified Public Accountants, ASU Alumni Association, ACT International, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Arizona, Boy Scouts Grand Canyon Council, Chase Bank Arizona, Colonia Bank, Community Council, Compass Bank Arizona, Desert Botanical Garden, Diocesan Finance Council, Friendly House, Information and Referral Services, Maricopa Partnership of Arts and Culture, Norwest Bank Arizona, Pi Kappa Alpha House Corporation, Project Prevention, Quality Care Solutions, Inc., Regency Health Services, Inc., Sun Healthcare Group, Inc., Thunderbird The American Graduate School Global Council, Valle del Sol, Valley of the Sun United Way, VSUW Foundation, and Wells Fargo Bank Arizona.
He is a member of the Arizona Academy, Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Arizona Society of Certified Public Accountants, and Financial Executives International.
He has received various civic and business awards, including the Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce 1981 Professional of the Year, the ASU College of Business 1985 Alumni Hall of Fame, the Arizona Society of Certified Public Accountants 1995 Public Service Award, the Valle del Sol, Inc. 1998 Profiles of Success Exemplary Leadership Award, the Arizona State University 1999 Alumni Achievement Award, the Anti-Defamation League 2000 Leaders of Distinction Award, the Chicanos por la Causa 2001 Professional Achievement Award, the Phoenix Art Museum 2011 Exemplary Service Award, and the Boy Scouts of America 2011 Whitney Young Award. He was also recognized in the Business Journals list of the Valleys 100+ Most Influential in 1999-2000, Valley Influential Class of 2004, and the Arizona Business Magazine 2008 Centers of Influence Award which honored Arizonas ten most influential financial executives and 2013 Twenty-five Most Influential Hispanic Leaders in AZ.
MD MBA, Advisory Board Member
Dr. Bank is physician executive trained and boarded in the field of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. A graduate of Columbia College, Columbia College for Physicians and Surgeons, and the WP Carey School of Business at Arizona State University, Dr Bank spent the early part of his career building successful clinical, academic and trauma programs in the field of Pediatric Emergency Medicine serving as the Medical Director at Weill Cornell –NY Presbyterian Hospital and Phoenix Children’s Hospital. [expander_maker id=”4″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
From 2006 until 2012, Dr. Bank served as the Physician-in-Chief of Phoenix Children’s Hospital where, working with executive leadership, he grew the hospital employed physician group from 190 to 450and placed ambulatory and urgent care services throughout Maricopa County. From 2012 until 2020, Dr. Bank was appointed as the Vice Chair of Pediatrics at Columbia University, the University of Texas, and the Baylor College of Medicine. His focus during these years was on the development of ambulatory programs that meet the needs of their communities, in particular children with disabilities and complex medical conditions. He has expertise in the development of Value Based Models of Care and is nationally recognized for his work in the field of Access to Care. Dr. Bank serves as the Chief Medical Advisor for the National Patient Access Collaborative, a consortium of greater than 100 academic institutions attempting to improve the timing and access to ambulatory services.
Since 2020, Dr. Bank has been the Medical Director of two Pediatric Emergency Departments in San Antonio Texas and served as a consultant. As a consultant, Dr. Bank worked with a large payer and physician group in Arizona to launch virtual care programs for foster children and children with complex medical conditions. Using GlobalMed’s technology, his program kept children in the comfort of their own home to provide preventative and urgent care services. Dr. Bank resides in Austin, Texas and is a frequent lecturer at the McCombs School of Business where he lectures on the topics of Value Based Care and ambulatory delivery.
He serves on the Board of Any Baby Can, a non-for-profit in Austin, Texas that delivers early child intervention programs for vulnerable and high risk children. Finally, Dr. Bank is the proud father of 4 children, Morgan, Matthew, Joshua and Nathan.
John J. Burke
Advisory Board Member
Throughout his career, John Burke, of Burke Consulting, has been a business builder, investor and strategist. With an MA in psychology, his career has included international consulting in the development and strategic positioning services for vendors of Employer Assistance Programs, (EAP) work/life, and general and behavioral health services . [expander_maker id=”6″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]His consulting also focuses on mergers and acquisition activities and the development of strategic business relationships. Recently, John served as Chief Strategy Officer for the Oregon Center for Applied Science, ORCAS Inc., a health technology company that was acquired by GlobalMed in January 2017. Additionally, John is a founder and director of Connect Assist, Inc. based in Cardiff, Wales UK. Over his career, John has worked in the public sector, been a business owner and has served on the senior management team of a large managed behavioral healthcare company. He is a frequent speaker at conferences and events and is published in many professional journals. John has been a member of numerous national employer and healthcare committees, and he has served in leadership capacities with several professional associations. John serves on the board of directors of Empathia, Connect Assist, Minds Renewed and the Employee Assistance Research Foundation.[/expander_maker]
Gregory R. Ciottone
Advisory Board Member
Dr. Ciottone is a U.S. board certified Emergency Physician with more than 25 years experience in academic, clinical, and global Emergency Medicine. He is an internationally recognized expert in Disaster Medicine, and has served as a consultant in more than 30 countries around the world. [expander_maker id=”7″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]Dr. Ciottone has extensive field experience, including developing medical education programs throughout the former Soviet Union in the 1990s that trained over 75,000 people, serving as Commander of one of the first federal Disaster Medical Teams into Ground Zero during the World Trade Center disaster on 9/11/2001, and more recently leading a team into Haiti following the 2010 earthquake. He has also flown over 200 missions as a flight surgeon on a rescue helicopter system, with experience on the BO105, BK117, and EC135 air-frames. In 2006, Dr. Ciottone became Editor-in Chief of Disaster Medicine, later renamed Ciottones Disaster Medicine in his honor. The second edition was released in 2016 and deemed The leading textbook in the field by the prestigious journal Annals of Emergency Medicine. In addition to his textbook, he has written over 100 scholarly articles, chapters, and educational materials.
Dr. Ciottone is an Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at Harvard Medical School and is the Director of the Division of Disaster Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where he works clinically in the Department of Emergency Medicine. Dr. Ciottone is the Founder and Director of the first-ever Disaster Medicine Fellowship Program at a Harvard teaching hospital. He also serves as the Director of the Disaster Preparedness Program at the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. In addition to these appointments, he has held the position of Visiting Professor of Disaster Medicine at three prestigious Universities around the world, including Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Belgium and the Universita del Piemonte Orientale in Italy. Dr. Ciottone has had numerous appearances on CNN as a subject matter expert, with one of his interviews cited as Best of CNN, stories worth watching in 2014. He has been quoted in multiple news sources including the Boston Globe, Washington Times, ABC, CBS, and NBC news networks, Discovery news, and National Public Radio. He also gave a TEDx talk on Crisis Leadership.
Dr. Ciottone is the recipient of a number of honors and awards, including receiving an Official Citation from the Massachusetts Senate for his work at Ground Zero during the September 11, 2001 federal response, and being personally thanked by Tommy Thompson, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, for the two weeks he spent responding to that horrible event. He also served as Medical Director for the Tactical EMS training program at the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Academy in Quantico, VA., and became a Founding Member of the United States Department of Homeland Security. Dr. Ciottone later served as Medical Director for the Operational Medicine Program, Office of Security and Investigations, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC.
Dr. Ciottone was named EMS Physician of the Year by Central Massachusetts Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and was the Spotlight for the Phi Beta Kappa national publication Keynote Reporter. The Boston Red Sox recently honored Dr. Ciottone by having him throw out the Ceremonial First Pitch as part of a 9/11 remembrance ceremony at Fenway Park. Later, while working in conjunction with Mikhail Gorbachev and the Gorbachev Foundation towards improved healthcare infrastructure in Russia, Dr. Ciottone served as a personal envoy from President Gorbachev to the U.S. Governmental Agency the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), and was named by the Russian Federation Ministries of Education and Science as an approved Evaluation Expert for the New Eurasia Foundation. In 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Health adopted and translated Ciottones Disaster Medicine, 2nd ed. to be used as the national Emergency Preparedness Training Manual for China. Later in 2016, he was recognized by the White House Medical Unit for consultative services that further enhanced their mission, and in July, 2017 Dr. Ciottone will be honored for his achievements by induction into the faculty of The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.
Dr. Ciottone continues to teach and lecture around the world on Disaster Medicine and related topics. He resides in Westminster Massachusetts with his wife and children. [/expander_maker]
Marc O. Griofa
MD, Advisory Board Member
Dr. Marc O Griofareceived his medical degree from University College Dublin and his PhD in biomedical engineering from the University of Limerick and is a Fellow of the Academy of Wilderness Medicine. He is currently a chief medical and technology officer pioneering advancements in medical technology telemedicine and telomere research for various applications.[expander_maker id=”8″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]Dr. O Griofa is the principle investigator for Project CASPER (Cardiac Adapted Sleep Parameters Recorder), which was the first Irish experiment to fly onboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station.He spent 3 years at Kennedy Space Center as part of the Aerospace Medicine and Biomedical Research departments, is a NOAA trained diving medical officer (DMO) and was an aquanaut crewmember on NASA’s Extreme Environments Mission Operations (NEEMO) 21 Mission at the Aquarius Undersea Habitat. He is currently leading a number of biomedical technology and telehealth solutions for both the US Veterans Hospital Administration (VA) and US Department of Defense (DoD).Dr. O Griofa is also a trauma and combat casualty care instructor for physicians, medical personnel and Special Operations Forces (SOF) teams in joint tactical and combat medical care and is a tactical physician for the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Dept SWAT Team. He provides expert consultation on a variety of operational projects specialist medical support for commercial spaceflight companies and providers, is the dive medicine faculty lead for World Extreme Medicine and is the President of the largest volunteer SAR Team in the United States, Red Rock Search & Rescue. [/expander_maker]
Advisory Board Member
Chuck recently completed a 30-plus year career in the United States Navy. During his career, he has had a wide variety of clinical and leadership experiences in both inpatient and outpatient healthcare settings. These included various roles at the White House during the last four Presidential Administrations. He most recently served as the Director of the White House Medical Unit. [expander_maker id=”9″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”] He earned his bachelor’s degree from the University of Central Florida and his Master’s degree from Marymount University. [/expander_maker]
MD, Advisory Board Member
The son of American missionaries, Doctor Phil Johnson spent his childhood in the Himalayan Mountains and Sindh deserts of Pakistan where his parents focused on providing education, rural development and healthcare. His interest in healthcare grew from there and led to him pursuing a degree in medicine, which he received from Northwestern University. [expander_maker id=”9″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]After an internship and residency in family practice at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Dr. Johnson practiced in underserved areas of Arizona for Indian Health Services. In 1992, he became a Fulbright Scholar at Aga Khan University Medical School in Karachi, Pakistan, where he set up postgraduate training programs for the university. Dr. Johnson returned to the United States in 1994 and began work as an emergency physician at Summit Healthcare Regional Medical Center in Show Low, Arizona. In 2003, he was named the hospitals Emergency Room Medical Director and Chairman of the Emergency Department. Dr. Johnson shares his expertise with medical students at Midwestern University College of Osteopathic Medicine in Glendale, Arizona, serving as a Clinical Assistant Professor.
Dr. Johnson holds multiple certifications in advanced life support for both adults and pediatric patients. He has spoken at national and international conferences in the United States, Canada and Pakistan and is a published author of clinical literature.
His desire to provide the best care for his patients was the motive behind the founding of EMDTransfer in 2007, a cloud-based service that provides distant specialists with critical patients medical images. This speeds up the decision-making process as to whether a patient needs to be transferred to a hospital that provides a higher level of care or remain at the original facility. Unnecessary patient transfers add more layers of cost to the healthcare system, deprive community hospitals of needed revenue, and are an inconvenient burden to patients and their families. In late 2011, GlobalMed purchased EMDTransfer and added Dr. Johnson to its medical Advisory Board.[/expander_maker]
MD, MBA, Chief Medical Advisor
As an expert in the field of occupational medicine, urgent care, telemedicine and utilization review, Dr. Lewis brings more than 30 years experience as both a physician and health care executive. [expander_maker id=”10″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
Dr. Bill Lewis is currently a Senior Consultant for Telemedicine for Humana and the Co-Chair of the ATA/CHQI Telemedicine Standards and Accreditation Committee’s. He served for 2 years as the CMO of GlobalMed and continues advocacy within the Advisory Board. He serves as a Consultant through WellMedcare for multiple Fortune 200 companies providing implementation and product development support in Telemedicine. Launching and serving as the Chair of the UCAOA Telemedicine Section is another current activity. Dr. Lewis served as the Senior Vice President of Medical Operations for Concentra Health Services and within Humana and Select Medical for 20 years and has supervised over 400 physicians in ten states with 140 clinics as well as over 200 Worksite & Wellness clinics in this role. He obtained his Boards in Emergency Medicine and practiced emergency medicine for twelve years prior to obtaining an MBA and practicing Urgent and Occupational medicine. Bill has served on multiple boards and EBM and Guideline Committees including the WOEMA, Arizona Industrial Commission and the ATA. Dr. Lewis received his medical degree at the Ohio State University and did his emergency medicine residency at the University of Oklahoma. [/expander_maker]
DVM, Advisory Board Member
Dr. James MacLean’s first job at 15 years old was in a veterinary hospital. He was accepted a year early into Veterinary School at Virginia Tech and graduated in 1994. After almost 30 years, he still sees dogs and cats as a practitioner. [expander_maker id=”10″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
He has done significant work for seeing eye dogs, PTSD service dogs contract bomb detection dogs. While working as a veterinarian, he received his MBA from Georgetown University. He has owned multiple hospitals in Northern Virginia and currently owns a hospital in Charleston, South Carolina. He has been involved in many other business endeavors while practicing, including the Chief Veterinary Officer for Scenthound (a subscription grooming startup), an angel investor in veterinary insurance, and currently runs a veterinary brokerage and consulting business. Additionally, he has some experience with manufacturing and medical plastics. He lives in Charleston with his wife, four children, and a black lab.
Chief Medical Advisor, Adeptus Health
Dr. Martinez is Chief Medical Officer for Adeptus Health, where he leads quality, safety, clinical operations and physician leadership efforts for freestanding EDs, hospital-satellite ED, and hospitals across multiple states. Dr. Martinez is a nationally recognized board-certified emergency physician and has practiced emergency medicine clinically for more than 30 years, and held senior roles in business, academia, and the federal government. [expander_maker id=”11″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]Before joining Adeptus Health, Dr. Martinez was Chief Medical Officer of North Highland Worldwide Consulting, where a major focus of his work was collaborating with physician leadership to enhance their effectiveness in providing high-value care, building data-driven patient-centered teams, and driving cultural change. Dr. Martinez also served as the Executive Vice President of Medical Affairs for the Schumacher Group, a leading emergency medicine practice management company, and was previously appointed Federal Administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) by President Clinton. He currently serves as faculty at Emory University School of Medicine and previously held roles at Stanford University School of Medicine and as Executive Director of the Medical Leadership Academy. Dr. Martinez has been a senior medical advisor to the National Football League since 1988, facilitating medical care, emergency planning, preparedness and public health for The Super Bowl. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 2004 and served on the Board of Directors of the Public Health Foundation.
Dr. Martinez pursued undergraduate studies from Louisiana State University, an M.D. from Louisiana State University School of Medicine, and his residency at LSU-Charity Hospital at New Orleans, where he was Chief Resident. [/expander_maker]
MD, Advisory Board Member
Wayne J. Olan, MD is board-certified in Radiology, and currently serves as the Director of Interventional and Endovascular Neurosurgery, Co-Director of the Endovascular Stroke Program and an associate professor of NeuroSurgery and Radiology at The George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences. He completed his training in Radiology and fellowship training in Neuroradiology with subspecialty training in Interventional Neuroradiology. [expander_maker id=”12″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
He rejoined the department of neurosurgery at GW 7 years ago after serving 10 years as the director of Interventional Neuroradiology for Johns Hopkins Medicine at Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. He continues as a consulting physician to the National Institutes of Health and the United States Congress as well as is a member of the White House Medical Unit. He is a member of many professional societies including the Radiological Society of North America, American College of Radiology, American Medical Association, Medical Society of District of Columbia, American Society of Neuroradiology,American Society of Spine Radiology, the Society of Interventional Radiology and the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery.
Dr. Olans clinical and research interests involve the endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, including the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular treatment of stroke and assisting in setting up endovascular stroke programs around the country. He performs aneurysm coiling, extra-cranial and intra-cranial arterial stenting, embolization of AVMs, embolization of head/neck tumors, and intracranial, endovascular thrombectomy in acute stroke patients. In addition he has interests in the interventional, minimally invasive treatment of spinal disorders.and is a leader in the treatment of degenerative spine disorders, including osteoporotic compression fractures and degenerative spinal stenosis. He is also at the forefront of regenerative medical technologies, exploring autologous solutions for many degenerative or inflammatory disorders.
Dr. Olan has published extensively on minimally invasive spinal interventions, endovascular therapy for aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations as well as stroke intervention and treatments. He lectures and teaches around the world on these topics as well as is involved in the development of many devices and ground breaking technology in these arenas. [/expander_maker]
Ronald K. Poropatich
MD, MS, Advisory Board Member
Dr. Ronald Poropatich is the Executive Director of the Center for Military Medicine Research, Health Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh. He is also a Professor of Medicine in the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh and serves as a Senior Advisor for Telemedicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.[expander_maker id=”13″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
Dr. Robin D. Ross
MD, MPH, CPH, Advisory Board Member
Dr. Robin Ross specializes in retina and vitreous disorders and has been an accomplished, board-certified surgeon for over 20 years. Throughout her career, she has championed technology and clinical research to improve the quality of compassionate care delivered to her patients. [expander_maker id=”13″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
She was one of the first to embrace non face-down positioning for macular hole patients, embrace 25g technology, and utilize wide angle imaging to enhance retinal care. She spent most of her career in private practice until the University of Michigan Health System acquired her practice.
She was born in California and attended Stanford University on scholarship. She received her medical degree from Weill Cornell Medical College in New York. As a medical student, she was part of a revolutionary research team that developed a new tool to repair detached retinas.
She completed her ophthalmology residency at the University of Iowa where she was awarded the Charles D. Phelps Faculty Award for developing a community clinic. She was one of the first residents in the U.S. to serve as a section editor for “Archives of Ophthalmology.” She was awarded the Heed Fellowship throughout her 2-year Vitreoretinal fellowship at Associated Retinal Consultants in Michigan.
Dr. Ross conducts ophthalmology training worldwide and is certified by the International Red Cross for Health Emergencies. She recently completed her Masters in Public Health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health to improve quality of eye care delivery to patients in the U.S. and Globally. She received the Fulbright Specialist Award in 2017 while serving with the U.S. National Institute of Health in West Africa to train eye professionals. She is Board Certified in Public Health because she believes wellness is central to best visual outcomes.
Phillip Joseph Silberberg
MD, Advisory Board Member
Dr. Silberberg is presently a Staff Radiologist at Omaha Childrens Hospital, Omaha, NE. He has served as a Clinical Associate Professor-Radiology at Creighton University and the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Dr. Silberberg has also been an Associate Professor at Doernbecher Childrens Hospital and Oregon Health Sciences University for over nine years.[expander_maker id=”14″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
Currently, Dr. Silberberg is a member of the American Board of Radiology with a certificate of Added Qualifications in Pediatric Radiology. He has been a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and a diplomat of the American Board of Radiology since 1993. Dr. Silberberg has been published in over 15 different peer reviewed journals and is a member of over eight professional societies, including the American roentgen Ray Society, the Radiologic Society of North America, the Fellow of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, the Society for Pediatric Radiology and the Society of Computer Assisted Radiography.
Dr. Silberberg graduated from the University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Johannesburg, South Africa. He placed 29th out of 200 on the Surgical Merit List. He served his residency, in the department of Diagnostic Radiology, from McMaster University, Ontario, Canada. Dr. Silberberg performed a fellowship in Pediatric Radiology at the Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario, Canada. Dr. Silberberg served a rotating internship at Hillbrow General Hospital, in Johannesburg, South Africa.[/expander_maker]
Ronald S. Weinstein, MD: 1938-2021
We honor GlobalMed Advisory Board Member Dr. Ronald S. Weinstein, who passed away December of 2021. Dr. Weinstein was a Massachusetts General Hospital-trained pathologist who participated in some of the earliest telemedicine cases and co-founded the Arizona Telemedicine Program, ATP. He was a professor at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and an accomplished author. [expander_maker id=”16″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]
Dr. Weinstein was the leading pioneer in telepathology and was known as the Father of Telepathology. He was one of the gifted leaders that formed the American Telemedicine Association. Beyond his impressive professional honors and achievements, Dr. Weinstein was a friend and mentor. He took a genuine interest in those he served, never wavered in his support and guidance, and shared GlobalMed’s vision of a world without disparity of care. Dr. Weinstein’s dream was to make an impact worldwide – something he most certainly achieved. We are ever grateful for the impact he had on us all at GlobalMed. We express our condolences to his wife Mary, children John and Katherine, their spouses, his grandchildren and all team members at the ATP. He will be missed. [/expander_maker]